Mathematical Bias and the Biblical Calendar
(2009, Revised 2015, 2022)

By: Shawn Richardson

Section 9:


Let's begin to take a look now at the current Hebrew calendar. Remember, we have already seen an evolution of this calendar from a Biblical perspective that is literally based on observing the lunar, solar and seasonal signs, to a process of observation confirmed by witnesses that purportedly used calculation to confirm the testimony, to a process of pure calculation based on average timetables and completely abandoning observational practices (except for observing the Day). We have explained that the monthly search for a new moon crescent has been replaced with the repeated, fixed duration of the calculated Molad - the mathematical average time of the moon's conjunction over time. Additionally, the annual search in the spring for indigenous barley or equivalent crops was replaced with a mathematical average timetable that inserts a 13th leap-month based on a 19-year cycle pattern. Many that support the Hebrew calendar either accept this change or claim that it's calculations have actually been a mathematical system all along, since the time of Moses, and has merely been kept confidential among small groups of individuals (such as the Sanhedrin). To make such a claim, it is then presumed that the mathematics have been divinely granted and preserved as part of the Oracles - in much the same way Biblical scriptures have been preserved from the Old Testament except in an oral fashion. But for that to be true, there are some obvious changes that had to of occurred from the time of Moses to today's widely accepted Hebrew calendar.

Names of Months

Tammuz in Mesopotamian religion, god of fertility believed to embody powers for new life in the spring (c. 2600-c. 2334 BCE)

One of the changes that took place is actually preserved by the scriptures themselves. That is a change of the proper Hebrew names given for months. As we read in Exodus, Yehovah gave us a "name" for the first month of the year, for lack of a better term, as being the month of the Aviv. The reference to Aviv can be seen in Exodus 12:2, 13:4, 23:15, 34:18 and Deuteronomy 16:1. The current Hebrew calendar, however, has given the first month the proper name Nisan - although minor on the surface, a change indeed. There are three other months with similar references in the early Old Testament Bible: Ziv (I Kings 6:1 and 6:37), the second month meaning light (splendor or radiance), Ethanim (I Kings 8:2), the seventh month meaning strong (ever-flowing), and Bul (I Kings 6:38) the eighth month meaning produce (or rain) when crops were often planted. The remaining months were simply numbered (third month, fourth month, etc.) - in fact, all of the months were simply numbered just as the days of the week are numbered. There was no need to properly name them. But, in later writings of the Old Testament and in the New Testament, we see a change to references of the calendar as having all of the months named whose origins come from ancient Babylon (Nisan, Iyyar, Sivan, Tammuz, Av, Elul, Tishri, Kheshvan, Kislev, Tevet, Shevat, Adar and Adar II). We can confirm this in the Wikipedia Encyclopedia[20]:

As a side-note, the Babylonian and Sumerian calendars were also based on observation of the new moon crescent[20]. However, we see here the first known existence of what likely became the Hebrew calendar with one of these changes being the names of months in 586 BCE. We also see these names referenced in the Bible (primarily in the New Testament) - so we know this change occurred. Without the Hebrew meaning behind the name Aviv, we no longer have a foundation for basing our first month as the moon of the ripened barley harvest. Instead, the name has been replaced with Babylonian traditions. Just because this change is recorded within the Biblical text, however, it does not mean that it should have! Furthermore, if the existing calendar was considered preserved as part of the Oracles, wouldn't the names have been preserved as well? Did Yehovah approve of such a name change? Even when He directly gave the original reference for the first month of the year?

Just as we no longer refer to days of the week as the first day, second day, etc., today's society has adopted names of Sunday, Monday, etc. In fact, all of the names for the days of the week are now based on the names of Pagan gods - including the Babylonian Sun god (Sun-day). But just because we may reference the Sabbath as being on Saturdays, does that mean Yehovah intended to change his Sabbath to be called Saturday? No, of course not! Neither should we assume Yehovah changed the month of the Aviv to Nisan!

So what harm is there in giving names to the Biblical Months? Notice the Babylonian name given to the fourth month. Tammuz, which was one of the primary Babylonian gods that has evolved into many pagan practices intricately tied into the summer and winter solstices each year - including the celebration of Christmas. Tammuz is a Life-Death-Rebirth Deity[42] that is mourned at the summer solstice as he begins to die and celebrated at the winter solstice as he is reborn. Tammuz is also mentioned in the Bible with the mourning ceremony for the Pagan god specifically classified as an abomination by Yehovah. Ezekiel 8:14-15[1]:

Even Yeshua Himself never references the Babylonian names for the months within the scriptures. Certainly Israel, followed by the Jewish community and its authoritative leaders, picked up some Pagan practices after their Babylonian exile just as we continue to do today (beyond naming the days of the week). But regardless, even though He may have allowed it to happen, there are no scriptures showing the Babylonian names of the months as being ordained by Yehovah. And it certainly does not support a calendar system being preserved and protected in the Oracles from the time of Moses.

19-Year Intercalary Cycle

Much like how we reference the Gregorian calendar today, Jerusalem was forced to accept the Babylonian civil calendar after the conquest of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. This civil calendar continued to be used until 70 A.D. with exception to a period of time under Alexander the Great from 332-200 B.C. when the Macedonian civil calendar was used. The Britannica explains[74]

The article continues in regard to the Jews' religious calendar that was in contrast to the civil calendar. With many Jews now being displaced from Jerusalem and more and more lived in the diaspora, confusion began to arise as communication to these areas became difficult. Yet Jerusalem remained the focus of determining when religious dates would occur. People began relying on other resources, such as the spring equinox without any regard to the Palestinian rulings. Therefore, the article explains, Hillel II, a Palestinian patriarch, was attributed to introducing the 19-year Intercalary Cycle. There is no evidence that he introduced the Hebrew calendar in its entirety as we know it today, yet the intercalary cycle remains. The current makeup of today's Hebrew calendar is not fully documented in its entirety for another 1100 years when Rabbi Maimonides, the great medieval philosopher and legist, wrote Sanctification of the New Moon. This 19-year cycle follows very closely to the actual pattern of aviv barley found within Israel today. It often correlates with actual findings within the land and is likely based on years of documented results. It may have been a mathematical tool used by the Palestinians that, no doubt, became more and more accurate over time. The table consists of a pattern, spanning over 19 years, when a leap year occurs (or when a year contains 13 months). In Hebrew, a leap year is referred to as Shanah Me'uberet, meaning a pregnant year. This occurs for 7 out of 19 years in every 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th year.

The Molad Emtzai

+Intercalary Year (13 mos.)
-1 DayConjunction+1 Day
Sundown >= 18:00 (Israel Time)


In order to calculate today's Hebrew calendar, you must first begin with the calculated Molad (or the Molad Emtzai). The word Molad is a Hebrew word meaning birth that is connected to the time at which the New Moon is supposedly "born". However, this is considered to be somewhat ambiguous because it can differ based on the context. It can mean the astronomical lunar conjunction in a given location or some use it to specify the first visibility of the new lunar crescent after conjunction. For the Hebrew calendar, it is essentially the mean lunar conjunction (average time elapsed between the waning and waxing crescents in Jerusalem).

This average timespan of the moon, essentially the Synodic month, occurs exactly 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 3 1/3 seconds (or, equivalently, 29.53059 days) after the previously calculated Molad moment. For example, the Molad Emtzai in 2016 (Year 5777 of the Hebrew calendar) occurred on Saturday, October 1st at 2:40pm Israel time (13:40 military time). This was 11 hours and 29 minutes after the astrological new moon conjunction occurred. You can see in Figure 1 that the Hebrew year 5777 was the first year of the 19-year Intercalary Cycle and, therefore, was 12 months in length. In order to determine the year 5778, you would multiply 29.53059 days by 12 and you wind up on Wednesday, September 20, 2017 at 11:28pm (23:28). Figure 1 shows that this was 14 hours and 59 minutes after the astrological new moon conjunction occurred. You may notice that this variance between the Molad Emtzai and the conjunction spans over a period of 38 years with variances anywhere from 20 hours and 42 minutes in 2021 to just 26 minutes in 2038. That's nearly an entire day's difference! We will see later that it is possible for this variance to be even greater than 24 hours.

Even if the definition of the Biblical term chodesh was somehow defined to be the average cycle, similar to the Molad, how can one accept an entire day's variance from year to year, much less month to month?

From here, you would probably expect that the Hebrew calendar would actually refer to this Molad timeframe each and every month, but no. Instead, it uses a fixed number of days with a few exceptions.

Much like how we are used to the month of February being either 28 or 29 days based on leap years occurring approximately every four years, the Hebrew calendar also has two months that fluctuate in length based on certain rules (which we will cover shortly). All of the months, however, are assigned a fixed length of either 29 or 30 days. Only the seventh month is calibrated, so to speak, to the Molad. The remaining months are assigned a fixed number of days that never change, regardless of the moon's actual cycle.

The 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th months are each assigned 30 days. The 2nd, 4th, 6th and 10th months are assigned 29 days. In a standard year of 12 months, the 12th month is 29 days in length. In a leap year of 13 months, the 12th month is pushed to now be the 13th month with new 30-day "leap month" being inserted, now becoming the new 12th month.

Figure 2 below shows, month by month, the first three years of the Hebrew calendar from our first example. This table demonstrates how the fixed number of months within the Hebrew calendar layout, with the exception of the eighth and ninth months that are either 29 or 30 days based on the calendar's rules, along with the insertion of a 30-day leap-month for the leap year. Again, dates have been highlighted to show just how often each start of the calculated month defers from the Molad and the moon's conjunction. Of the 37 months listed, only 8 of those months actually have all three events occurring on the same day (or 21.6% of the time). This demonstrates the overall disconnect the calculated Hebrew calendar actually has with both the Molad and the actual lunar cycle, with some months starting up to three days later than the conjunction and the Molad, at times, falling the day prior. That's a total of four calendar days' variance from the day of the moon's conjunction.

Although the Hebrew calendar does not utilize the Molad here, Figure 2 demonstrates an over 24 hour difference between the conjunction and what would be the Molad for the second month in Hebrew Year 5776. The shortest in this example is 7 minutes in the eleventh month of Hebrew Year 5778. Finally, the second month of Year 5776 also shows the Molad falling 10 hours and 21 minutes prior to the conjunction on the previous day.

Rules of Postponement

At this point, the best we can say is that the Hebrew calendar is 'loosely' based on the lunar cycle - albeit in an inconsistent manner - when it is based on the Molad once per year. But now lets take a look at the rules that cause us to add days to either the 8th and/or 9th months. These rules are often referred to as the rules of postponement, or Dechiyot. Many percieve these as being from a mathematical perspective, assuming them to be innocent leap days being added to keep the seventh month aligned with the Molad. However, that is simply not the case. Rather, these leap days are added to the prior year in order to delay the start of the seventh month, or Rosh Hashanah/Yom Teruah (Day of Trumpets) one or two whole days based on certain conditions. From a lunar cycle perspective, these rules add an even greater variance from the conjunction and, in effect, cause this calendar system to become completely disconnected from the moon entirely. To the Jewish community, they refer to this as "Fixing Rosh Hashanah," they describe this, according to the Encyclopedia of Judaism[37], as the...

Notice that this is described in the Mishnah, which was codified in the year 1180 A.D. It's also worth noting that the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar is referred to in the Jewish community as the New Year. This can be confusing when most of us think of the New Year as being the first month. Although Jews still consider it Tishri, the seventh month on the calculated calendar, they also consider it to be the first month of a "fiscal" year. Traditionally, they claim that the seventh month marks the anniversary of the Creation Week given in Genesis. Let's look at each one.

Rule One

The first rule that 'fixes' the calendar delays the start of the 7th month (or the Day of Trumpets) based on what time of the day the calculated Molad cycle falls. From a Biblical perspective, you might think that this cutoff occurs around sundown. Instead, the rule delays to the next day whenever the Molad falls on or after the noon hour in Jerusalem (or 18:00 military time). When this rule is active, the previous year's 8th month will be increased to 30 days in length, thereby pushing the Day of Trumpets forward one day (along with the start of all the prior months throughout the year) from the moment of the Molad. The noon hour is determined by a global meridian extending through Jerusalem, not unlike the International Dateline in the Pacific Ocean that determines the Day of the Week at the midnight hour.


So why is the noon hour chosen? Even though the Molad is, essentially, the moon's conjunction, some church groups seem to interpret this rule as actually taking the new moon crescent into account. For example, the United Church of God, in regard to this first postponement rule, has stated in their doctrinal paper of The Hebrew Calendar[19]:

In other words, the day that is established as being the first of the month, based on the noon cut-off, would be considered a guarantee that the moon's crescent would also be seen on that day somewhere on the Earth by the time the next sunset comes around in Jerusalem. This is contrary to the fact that there is already over 20-hours of variance between the conjunction and the Molad, as we have seen already before this rule is even applied. Even the use of pure observation, restricted to within Jerusalem, has less variance than this - and we're just on rule one.

Even if the Biblical definition of chodesh were accepted as the calculated Molad, would six hours prior to sunset be the most appropriate choice? The average time for the new moon crescent to appear from the moon's conjunction is 18 hours. According to the NASA/Naval Observatory's recorded history of the new moon crescent for the Islamic calendar - a calendar also based on observation -they state in Crescent Moon Visibility and the Islamic Calendar[8]:

This means the minimum number of hours, even by using a telescope, is just over twelve hours - not six. A visible crescent is generally 16-18 hours later. Remember, this is not taking into consideration the already 20-hour variance from the conjunction. This means the visible crescent may not be visible for 38 hours after the Molad. Regardless of the arbitrary six-hour rule, it's obvious this rule is not taking the visible crescent into consideration - but rather it is simply a man-made fixed point established to create a mathematical deadline. Further, if the crescent was really considered the important factor for establishing the 7th month, as this group claims, the calculations would be based on the average time the sighting of the crescent itself actually occurred instead of finding the conjunction that happens several hours earlier and then re-adjusting back to the noon hour to undo what you just computed. Additionally, if the crescent is what is truly important, then this same rule should be applied to all months of the year - not just for the seventh! Since the leap day that is inserted for this rule is added to the prior year's 8th month, it completely destroys any integrity of the prior 10-11 months that were established.

Regardless of the arguments for or against this rule, certainly we've hashed this over enough to determine a mathematical beginning to the month, but no. Now we will look at the next rule that can delay yet another entire day.

Rule Two

The second Rule of Postponement creates an entirely fictional decree to avoid certain Festival dates from occurring adjacent to the weekly Sabbath. Therefore, if the first day (after applying any possible delay with the first rule) falls on the first, fourth or sixth day of the week, the 7th month is postponed again to the following day by adding yet another leap day to the previous year's 9th month, changing it from 29 to 30 days. Confirmed by the Wikipedia Encyclopedia[20], this postponement rule is:

This rule certainly does not take the visible crescent into account no matter how you attempt to twist the rules, nor is there any mathematical necessity - this is strictly a man-made requirement. There is absolutely no Biblical support to this rule, and even the Orthodox Jews or the Rabbinical authorities claim that there is no such requirement given within scripture. Historically, you can find references to Rabbinical Jews instituting this rule to avoid bad smells that would occur when their dead were not buried after two days. But, the United Church of God accepts this adjustment, by claiming in their doctrinal paper The Hebrew Calendar[19], that:

Therefore, United Church of God believes that Yehovah did not intend on His people to experience the hardship of having two Sabbath days in a row; although this scenario always occurs in the spring season - in fact, its even forced - as the Day of Pentecost falls on the first day of the week! It assumes that back-to-back Sabbaths are a burden (or are too difficult to bare) and that Yehovah never intended on this scenario to occur too often, but failed to mention it anywhere in scripture. Seems like a rather important error of omission, does it not?

Mr. John Ogwyn of the Living Church of God defends this postponement rule by using the Day of Preparation. He states in his article[18]:

Mr. Ogwyn assumes here that the Day of Preparation must occur on the previous day and that we cannot prepare for more than one Sabbath in a row should they fall back-to-back. By referring to shabbat shabbaton, he is saying that this sanctified holy day, similar to the weekly Sabbath, is the only holy day referred to in the manner. But this would only apply to the rule for the fourth and sixth days of the week, not the first. The Day of Trumpets is not considered a shabbat shabbaton. This just seems like an arbitrary excuse.

Given that this scenario occurs for three of the seven possible days of the week, surely this scenario would be covered in scripture when Israel relied on manna falling in Exodus. Yet scripture is silent on this fairly common scenario. We see in Exodus, when the miracle of manna occurred in the wilderness to feed the people during the time of Moses, that Israel was commanded to gather twice as much before the Sabbath. Exodus 16:23[1] states:

Exodus 16:26[1] says:

Exodus 16:29[1] continues:

We see here that the important focus is the Sabbath itself, not the sixth day of the week. There is no reason to limit Yehovah by stating he would not have made enough manna available for three days instead of two if it were necessary to observe both of Yehovah's commanded Sabbaths, or shabbat shabbatons. It is only when His commands were ignored and the people gathered on the Sabbath day itself that the manna would spoil. Additionally, if the Day of Atonement were to fall on a Sunday, there would be no need to gather three times the amount of manna because no food would have been consumed on the Day of Atonement - a day of fasting. This scenario would be no different than any other Preparation Day for the given week. If the Day of Atonement were to fall on a Friday, why would we assume Yehovah would not have kept the manna from spoiling during the Day of Atonement and the start of the weekly Sabbath? The purpose of the Preparation Day is to prepare for the oncoming Sabbath - it shouldn't matter whether it is for one day or two days back-to-back. There is also no requirement that the Day of Preparation must fall on a particular day of week for the annual festivals, including the Day of Atonement. And, in fact, we are given Biblical examples where it doesn't (i.e. John 19:31). We are not instructed to wait until the weekly Sabbath has already begun in order to prepare for a Holy Day that falls on the proceeding Sunday - indeed we should not.

Mr. Ronald L. Dart, a former Worldwide Church of God minister and recent radio evangelist, claimed the temple sacrifices were of a primary concern for this rule. In his article Why Do We Use the Hebrew Calendar?[43], Mr. Dart states:

In other words, Dart defends this rule by stating the Rabbinical authorities could simply change Yehovah's appointed Holy Days by working out these simple rules. This would not be unlike changing the weekly Sabbath to the first day of the week and simply changing the calendar so it falls on the seventh day (there's no specific instructions to the contrary there either). With the special duties of the High Priest at the temple, which required particular sacrifices on Holy Days, Sabbaths, New Moons, along with daily sacrifices in the mornings and evenings, placing the Day of Atonement adjacent to the weekly Sabbath would just be too difficult. Again, there seems to be no problem with having the Day of Atonement fall on the exact same day as the weekly Sabbath which would increase the number of required sacrifices to be done on the same day, but two days in a row proves to be even more inconvenient? Why does the absence of instruction to not make changes assume an authority to then make such changes? This flies in the face of the commandment to not add to or subtract from the Torah (or the law) found in Deuteronomy 4:2[1]:

Finally, why are any of these scenarios to be considered a conflict or an inconvenience for the Day of Atonement (a day of fasting) and not for the Day of Pentecost that would also fall back-to-back with the weekly Sabbath? Granted, there were still sacrifices still being made on the Day of Atonement, but how does the previous day or next being the weekly Sabbath have any impact on this situation?

The Jewish festival of Hoshana Rabbah, mentioned above, is documented as being another purpose of instituting this second postponement rule. The traditions that occur on Hoshana Rabbah are some of the oldest in Orthodox Judaism. The Wikipedia Encyclopedia explains the Hoshana Rabbah[23] rituals...:

This festival, also known as a water festival, is held on every day of the Feast of Tabernacles in Jewish tradition. But there are specific rituals conducted specifically on the 7th day. The Encyclopedia of Judaism of Answers.com explains[51]:

But these traditional ceremonies are not instructed within the Bible. In fact, they are man-made traditions that have been created as a prayer for rain by walking (or even dancing) in a circle chanting words repeatedly using the Aramaic expression "chabit, chabit velah barich". These traditions border very similarly to Pagan practices of rain god dances. In fact, the Encyclopedia of Judaism continues...

This means that Yehovah would accommodate the necessity for calendar postponements in order to avoid interrupting a man-made and superstitious tradition. This rule is applied more than any other rule. In Figure 3, you will see that it applies 50% of the time over 38 years and can be combined with rule 1.

+Intercalary Year (13 mos.)
-1 DayConjunction+1 Day+2 Days+3 Days
Sundown >= 18:00 (Israel Time)


Rule Three

The third rule applies to non-leap years that contain twelve months. For this rule, if the Molad falls on a Tuesday (Yom 3) and if the next year's Molad, plus six hours, falls on a Sunday (Yom 1), then Rosh Hashanah is postponed to Thursday (Yom 5) - or two whole days! This is done so that the current calendar year is not too long. This is because the calculated Hebrew calendar can only last 353, 354 or 355 days in a common year.

While this rule seems straight-forward mathematically, it does so at the cost of moving Holy days in relation to the moon. Rather than adjusting the arbitrary length of some other months throughout the year, this rule delays all of the previous months along with the Day of Trumpets.

Because of how these rules are setup, rule 3 would not apply at the same time as any other rule.

Rule Four

The fourth rule is similar to rule three, but applies to Intercalary years that have 13 months. If the Molad falls on a Monday (Yom 2) and the previous year's Molad fell at or after noon on Tuesday (Yom 3), then Rosh Hashanah is postponed to Tuesday (Yom 3) - or one day. Otherwise, the previous year would have been too short. The Hebrew calendar requires there to be 383, 384 or 385 days in a leap year. These requirements, when combined with the previous rule, average out to be approximately 365 days per year throughout the 19-year cycle.

Again, because of how these rules are setup, rule 4 would not apply at the same time as any other rule. This is the least frequent rule that applies, with the last time being in the Hebrew calendar year 5766.


From a strictly mathematical perspective, many of these rules seem pretty straight forward. After all, you want your calculated timetable to match that of the solar year. You can see, though, that it is rather complicated to achieve a lunar-solar calendar system that is fixed and repeatable. From a Biblical point-of-view, though, these rules still change the Day of Trumpets, forcing it to be moved up to two days after the moon's conjuction, even three days based on the timing of the Molad. This fluctuation exists whether you begin the lunar cycle with the conjuction or the visible crescent. In either case, scripture commands us to overbearing the Day of repeats on the first day of chodesh (not the second or third). In order to claim that this calendar system follows scriptural guidelines, you would have to radically redefine the Hebrew term chodesh to include ALL of these rules.

Figure 3 shows two 19-year cycles from 1997 to 2034. Here we show each year where one or more Postponement rules are applied along with the resulting dates of Rosh HaShanah (or the Day of Trumpets) - from sundown to sundown. Note there are several dates with no highlighted colors where the Day of Trumpets is kept on the same day as the conjunction. Let's now take note of the year 2035. If we assumed the moon's conjunction defined the Biblical term of chodesh, that moment falls on a Monday, October 1st at 4:06pm in Israel. Following the pattern of other dates being on the same day, this would mean the first day of the month should be sundown September 30th through sundown October 1st. One might take notice, though, that the conjunction falls just a few hours prior to sundown and believe it best to postpone a few hours so that the majority of the day for those east of Israel still correlates with the conjunction. This would result in keeping the Day of Trumpets the evening of October 1st through sundown October 2nd. However, the Molad falls instead on Tuesday, the third day of the week and the current year is only 12 months in length. Therefore, rule three of the Hebrew calendar applies and the day is pushed forward two full days until the fifth day of the week, which is Thursday, October 4th (or at sundown, October 3rd). This is a three day variance from the astrological new moon. This begs the question, are we following the commandment to observe the Day of Trumpets on the first day of chodesh (renewed moon)?


All of these adjustments, as you can see, can cause the Hebrew calendar to be off from the Biblical days we established earlier - and these differences occur in every single month of the year, not just at the Day of Trumpets! By abandoning the observation of His signs given in Genesis 1 to the methodology of pure calculated concepts and average timetables, there's no doubt that the Hebrew Calendar has changed the Biblical instruction. Even with many claiming observation can be messy, it's still results in being more accurate to the lunar cycle than the Hebrew calendar! Even if the mathematics were changed to be based directly on the visual Biblical signs, some may begin to rely solely on the math and be tempted to still make changes for the convenience. But does God accept that change? Malachi 3:6[1] states:

Change is evident throughout the Hebrew Calendar. Regardless of whether someone argues that the Renewed Moon (chodesh) referred to in the Bible is the new moon crescent or the dark moon conjunction, you can see that the Hebrew calendar, by establishing fixed timetables, it not actually tied to the lunar cycle from month-to-month. Following the Hebrew calendar actually causes one to completely ignore Biblical instruction. We are commanded to keep these festivals a certain number of days following the renewed moon! If Yehovah intended to use the Hebrew calendar, this instruction would need to be changed to something like count the number of days from the average Molad in the seventh month of the previous year, depending on whether it occurred before or after noon in Jerusalem and whether it started on the first, fourth or sixth day of the week and whether the year was 12 or 13 months in length plus the fixed number of days for each month in between. The mathematical principles cause Yehovah's given sign of the moon to essentially be ignored or, at best, used only as a rough estimate (actual results may vary).

It is these mathematical man-made rules that conflict with the Biblical instruction and should cause us to question their validity. There is also too much evidence that shows the Hebrew calendar, as we know it today, has been an evolving process - from a calendar based on pure observation to one based on pure calculation. This evolving change has been fully documented within Jewish history and its Rabbinical authorities - the same group that various Western church organizations attest to preserving a calendar methodology within the (unwritten) oracles. But the primary reason Orthodox Jews follow the Hebrew calendar today is strictly due to the Rabbinical authority given to it through the man-made traditions and Rabbinical writings.

Glenn McWilliams, writer for Torah Keepers, a Messianic Jewish group explains in his Calendar Debate[14] article the growing Christian movement to abandon Pagan practices and return to the commonwealth of Israel. He further explains that:

He continues to state that following the Biblical principles...

We are witnessing this same growing concern over the Hebrew calendar right now within many Western church organizations and Sabbath-keeping groups. They have already been a concern for much of the Jewish community and, in fact, have been a topic historically debated since shortly after the time of Yeshua! Most have chosen to put their entire confidence and faith into the Hebrew calendar for the sake of their mathematical bias and by following the example of the Orthodox Jews' blind acceptance of rabbinical arbitrary rules without any question to their validity. It is simply assumed that, because it's mathematically based, it must be accurate to what the sages kept so many years ago. Many of us in the Western World have never even considered the architecture and history behind the Hebrew calendar's evolving process. Many of us simply assume the calendar has been preserved and may not even realize that the Rabbinical Orthodox Jews themselves don't even view their own calendar in this same way. Instead, many just submit to the Rabbinical authority to accept their Oral Laws as being "the next best thing" until Messiah comes. They would rather be told what to do than directly apply the written principles recognized within Torah - the Bible!


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